Sex istor

Menon (1992) considers that structural details of the bony covering of the swimbladder and the nature of the scales are only of use at the generic level.

Sex istor-43

An early Oligocene route also existed between the Anatolian landmass and Central Asia (Tang et al., 2008) and cobitids may have invaded the Euro-Mediterranean zoogeographic subregion at least five times independently based on cytochrome b data.

Some members of this family can live in oxygen-poor waters.

The fish is said to actively swing the head from side to side to prick predators. (2011) review evolutionary ecology of clonal-bisexual complexes.

Clonal forms, for example, are polyploids and have larger eggs and therefore reduced individual fecundity, and hatchlings are larger, perhaps with higher fitness initially in a local environment.

The composition of Iranian species has not been investigated throroughly.

The earliest fossil record is from the middle Miocene about 15MYA with divergence of Sabanejewia and Cobitis at 12-13MYA (Ludwig et al., 2001).Economidis and Nalbant (1996) discuss characters used in the study of these fishes and consider scales to be characteristic of each species along with colour pattern, sexual dimorphism, suborbital spine morphology, barbel and mental lobe morphology, and others.Black spots at the caudal fin base and four longitudinal pigment zones on the flank (Z1-4 or Gambetta's zones 1-4) are important in distinguishing and describing species.None of the Iranian fishes are used in this fashion but they can be quite colourful. taenia is a potential fishing bait for predatory fishes such as Sander lucioperca and has been examined experimentally for this purpose in Turkey (Kuşat et al., 1995).Genus Cobitis Linnaeus, 1758 These fishes are found in Europe, North Africa and Asia. They are known generally as سگ ماهي (sag mahi meaning dog fish) in Farsi, the equivalent of loach in English.These loaches often bury themselves in mud to overwinter or escape predators.

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