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This is shown in , where the blue rectangular client device icon is placed nearest the cell that has detected it with the highest signal strength.

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These techniques are discussed in subsequent sections.

Time of Arrival (To A) systems are based on the precise measurement of the arrival time of a signal transmitted from a mobile device to several receiving sensors.

Figure 2-1 Cell of Origin In its simplest form, this technique makes no explicit attempt to resolve the position of the mobile device beyond indicating the cell with which the mobile device is (or has been) registered.

When applied to 802.11 systems, this technique tracks the cell to which a mobile device associates.

The primary advantage of this technique is ease of implementation.

Cell of origin does not require the implementation of complicated algorithms and thus positioning performance is very fast.

The timing of probe responses, tag transmissions, and location server polling intervals can introduce discrepancies between the actual and reported device position observed during each reporting interval.

One of the simplest mechanisms of estimating approximate location in any system based on RF "cells" is the concept of cell-of-origin (or "associated access point" in Wi-Fi 802.11 systems), as shown in .

Because signals travel with a known velocity (approximately the speed of light (c) or ~300 meters per microsecond), the distance between the mobile device and each receiving sensor can be determined from the elapsed propagation time of the signal traveling between them.

The To A technique requires very precise knowledge of the transmission start time(s), and must ensure that all receiving sensors as well as the mobile device are accurately synchronized with a precise time source.

Location tracking and positioning systems can be classified by the measurement techniques they employ to determine mobile device location (localization).

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