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It is concluded that one can use social learning theory to design effective interventions for preventing date rape. Implications for date and acquaintance rape prevention programs are discussed. Researchers also have investigated whether or not prevention programs are effective in lowering the incidence of date rape on campuses.While there have been numerous investigations done on prevention programs, few have implemented follow-up measures, and none have investigated if exposing participants to more than one program is more effective than just participating in one program.

Qualitative content analyses demonstrated that women's minimization of the abuse was the most commonly given reason for nondisclosure.

Borges (1973) shows that sex role socialization fosters the development of beliefs that lead to rape. Roark (1989) suggests a 3-level institutional response to rape that incorporates primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Quantitative analyses showed that disclosure of dating violence was related to stress associated with abuse, partner blame, and thoughts about ending the relationship.

The two month follow-up survey showed no change in attitudes, self-efficacy, or behavior. The sample used for the primary psychometric evaluation of the instrument consisted of 436 heterosexual college students (aged 16-25 yrs). "Evaluation of an intervention to change attitudes toward date rape." Journal of American College Health 46(4): 177-180.

There was a difference at pretest in males and females attitudes. Females had higher scores on the attitudes scale than males reflecting the former group's less rape supportive attitudes. Describes use of a less violent theatrical production based on social learning theory and risk-factor reduction that resulted in a significant improvement in attitudes related to date rape among 436 17-19 yr old male and female university students. "Acquaintance rape: Effective avoidance strategies." Psychology of Women Quarterly 10(4): 311-319. "Date and acquaintance rape among a sample of college students." Soc Work 37(6): 504-509.

Both control and intervention groups were sent a two month follow-up survey questionnaire, to measure any changes in attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior over time. Sought to develop a psychometrically sound instrument that measures attitudes related to date rape among college students and behaviors that affect the risk of date rape and which could be used to evaluate a college date rape prevention program.

As hypothesized students who saw the play Scruples showed a change in attitudes immediately posttest but no difference in self-efficacy or behavior. The College Date Rape Attitude and Behavior Survey (CDRABS) questionnaire was based on a review of the literature that focused on risk factors for date rape.Internal consistency was high for attitudes and moderate for behaviors. These and other findings suggest that the CDRABS provides a psychometrically sound tool for assessing attitudes and behaviors related to heterosexual date rape on college campuses. A randomized pretest and posttest control group design was used to asses attitude change. "Principal Component Analysis of the College Date Rape Attitude Survey (CDRAS): An Instrument for the Evaluation of Date Rape Prevention Programs." Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 13(2): 79-93. Studied differences in rape avoidance techniques and other situational variables among 35 avoiders, 26 acknowledged victims, and 21 unacknowledged victims of acquaintance rape identified in a survey and by interviews of 231 female university students (aged 18-25 yrs). This article reports on a date and acquaintance rape needs-assessment survey of 106 male and 113 female students in undergraduate English courses at the University of Hawaii-Manoa.Each group was given a pretest, viewed a play (intervention or control play), and responded to a posttest questionnaire. The College Date Rape Attitude Survey (CDRAS), a measure intended to assess attitudes related to risk for committing rape in adolescents and young adults, was examined to determine the principal component structure of rape-related attitudes in data collected on an undergraduate college sample. "GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RAPE SUPPORTIVE ATTITUDES BEFORE AND AFTER A DATE RAPE EDUCATION INTERVENTION." Journal of College Student Development 33(4): 331-338. Ss' responses to the Sexual Experiences Interview, which included 39 questions exploring characteristics of victimization that the Ss had suffered, revealed significant differences between rape victims and rape avoiders. The sample was ethnically mixed, with Japanese being the largest ethnic group represented.The intervention group attended the play Scruples, designed to promote date rape prevention, after which they were immediately posttested.After this initial posttest the intervention group also participated in an interactive group role-playing activity led by trained peer instructors. The researchers utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to examine college women's disclosure of dating violence.

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